For decades, it has been known that restricting calories by one-third, without any other intervention, increases the healthy lifespan in worms, mice, and monkeys.

Now scientists at Yale University have found that cutting calories by a mere 14 percent for 2 years—about one less muffin per day—in humans lead to multiple health benefits which might slow down aging. Two years of modest caloric restriction reprogrammed how fat cells regulate mitochondria to generate energy and the body’s anti-inflammatory responses. 

It turned out that this diet lowered a protein called platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PLA2G7). Removing this protein from mice lowered NLRP3 inflammasome activation, subsequent IL-1β levels, and improved metabolic health. 

From previous studies by this group and others, it is already known that blocking NLRP3 and lowering IL-1β extends health and lifespan in mice.

Reference: Spadaro O, Youm Y, et al. Caloric restriction in humans reveals immunometabolic regulators of health span. Science. 2022 Feb 11;375(6581):671-677.